Three Chicago Research Facilities Are Changing the World of Prosthetics Chicago Health Online

Brain-Machine Interface May One Day Help Paralyzed Patients Northwestern University's "2012: The Year in Review", Jan 2013

Brain waves trigger movement in paralyzed monkeys Reuters, June 2012

An articifical link between the brain and limbs proves beneficial... CBC Radio, May 2012

Moving muscles with minds Neuropod, a neuroscience podcast from Nature, April 2012

Brain Implants Help Paralyzed Monkeys Get a Grip Science, April 2012

Implant allows remote control of hand, no spinal cord necessary NBC News, April 2012

Hand paralysis reversed in monkeys NewScientist, April 2012

A True Bionic Limb Remains Far Out of Reach Wired Magazine, March 2012


Dekleva BM, Ramkumar P, Wanda PA, Kording KP, Miller LE. Uncertainty leads to persistent effects on reach representations in dorsal premotor cortex. eLife 5 (2016): e14316.

Best MD, Takahashi K, Suminski AJ, Ethier C, Miller LE, Hatsopoulos NG (2016) Comparing offline decoding performance in physiologically defined neuronal classes. Journal of Neural Engineering 13:026004

Sachs NA, Ruiz-Torres R, Perreault EJ, Miller LE (2015) Brain-state classification and a dual-state decoder dramatically improve the control of cursor movement through a brain-machine interface. Journal of neural engineering 13:016009

Callier T, Schluter EW, Tabot GA, Miller LE, Tenore FV, Bensmaia SJ (2015) Long-term stability of sensitivity to intracortical microstimulation of somatosensory cortex. Journal of neural engineering 12:056010

Ethier, C., J. A. Gallego and L. E. Miller (2015). "Brain-controlled neuromuscular stimulation to drive neural plasticity and functional recovery." Current Opinion in Neurobiology 33(0): 95-102. PMC4523462

Ethier C, Miller LE (2015) Brain-controlled muscle stimulation for the restoration of motor function. Neurobiology of disease 83:180-190. PMC4412757

Bensmaia SJ, Miller LE (2014) Restoring sensorimotor function through intracortical interfaces: progress and looming challenges. Nat Rev Neurosci 15:313-325 doi: 10.1038/nrn3724

Zaaimi B, Ruiz-Torres R, Solla SA, Miller, LE (2013) Multi-electrode stimulation in somatosensory cortex increases probability of detection. Journal of Neural Engineering, October 2013.

Cherian A, Fernandes H, Miller LE (2013) Primary motor cortical discharge during force field adaptation reflects muscle-like dynamics. Journal of Neurophysiology, May 2013.

London BM, Miller LE (2013) Responses of somatosensory area 2 neurons to actively and passively generated limb movements. Journal of Neurophysiology 109 (6): 1505-1513.

Oby E, Ethier C, Miller LE (2013) Movement representation in the primary motor cortex and its contribution to generalizable EMG predictions. Journal of Neurophysiology 109 (3): 666-678.

Ledbetter N, Ethier C, Oby E, Hiatt S, Wilder A, Ko J, Agnew S, Miller LE, Clark G (2013) Intrafascicular stimulation of monkey arm nerves evokes coordinated grasp and sensory responses. Journal of Neurophysiology 109 (2): 580-590.

Weber DJ, Friesen R, Miller LE (2012) Interfacing the somatosensory system: Essential considerations. Journal of Motor Behavior 44 (6): 403-418.

Corbett E, Ethier C, Oby E, Kording K, Perreault E, Miller LE (2013) Advanced User Interfaces for Upper Limb FES. In: Introduction to Neural Engineering for Motor Rehabilitation, Farina, Jensen and Akay, Editors. IEEE/Wiley Press.

Stevenson IH, London BM, Oby ER, Sachs NA, Reimer J, Englitz B, David SV, Shamma SA, Blanche TJ, Mizuseki K, Zandvakili A, Hatsopoulos NG, Miller LE, Kording KP (2012) Functional Connectivity and Tuning Curves in Populations of Simultaneously Recorded Neurons. PLoS Comput Biol 8:e1002775.

Flint, R.D., Lindberg, E.W., Jordan, L.R., Miller, L.E., and Slutzky, M.W. (2012) Accurate decoding of reaching movements from field potentials in the absence of spikes. Journal of Neural Engineering 9: 046006.

Ethier C, Oby ER, Bauman MJ, Miller LE (2012) Restoration of grasp following paralysis through brain-controlled stimulation of muscles. Nature 485 (7398): 368-371.

Flint RD 3rd, Ethier C, Oby ER, Miller LE, Slutzky MW (2012) Local field potentials allow accurate decoding of muscle activity. J Neurophysiol 108 (1), 18-24.

Weber DJ, London BM, Hokanson JA, Ayers CA, Gaunt RA, Torres RR, Zaaimi B, Miller LE (2011) Limb-state information encoded by peripheral and central somatosensory neurons: implications for an afferent interface. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 19 (5): 501-13.

Miller LE, Weber DJ (2011) Brain training: cortical plasticity and afferent feedback in brain-machine interface systems. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 19 (5): 465-7.

London BM, Torres RR, Slutzky MW, Miller LE (2011) Designing stimulation patterns for an afferent BMI: Representation of kinetics in somatosensory cortex. 33rd Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, Boston.

Sachs NA, Corbett EA, Miller LE, Perreault EJ (2011) Continuous movement decoding using a target-dependent model with EMG inputs. 33rd Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, Boston.

Ackermann DA, Ethier C, Foldes EL, Oby ER, Tyler D, Bauman MJ, Bhadra N, Miller LE, Kilgore KL (2011) Electrical Conduction Block in Large Nerves: High Frequency Current Delivery in the Nonhuman Primate. Muscle & Nerve 43 (6): 897-899.

Slutzky MW, Jordan LR, Lindberg E, Miller LE (2011) Decoding rat forelimb movement direction from epidural and intracortical field potentials. J Neural Eng 8: 036013.

Cherian A, Krucoff MO, Miller LE (2011) Muscle activity decoded from M1 discharge remains stable despite altered limb dynamics and posture. Journal of Neurophysiology 106:564-575.

Stevenson IH, Cherian A, London BM, Sachs NA, Lindberg E, Reimer J, Slutzky MW, Hatsopoulos NG, Miller LE, Kording KP (2011) Statistical assessment of the stability of neural movement representations. Journal of Neurophysiology 106:764-774.

Ethier C, Sachs NA, Miller LE (2011) Continuous State-dependent Decoders for Brain Machine Interfaces. In: The 5th International IEEE EMBS Neural Engineering Conference, Cancun.

Lindberg EW, Miller LE, Oby ER, Slutzky MW (2011) Decoding muscle activity with local field potentials. In: The 5th International IEEE EMBS Neural Engineering Conference, Cancun.

Rebesco JM, Miller LE (2011) Stimulus-driven changes in sensorimotor behavior and neuronal functional connectivity: Application to brain machine interfaces and neurorehabilitation. In: Enhancing performance for action and perception, vol. 192: 83-102, vol II. Elsevier.

Nazarpour K, Ethier C, Paninski L, Rebesco JM, Miall RC, Miller LE (2011) EMG prediction from Motor Cortical Recordings via a Non-Negative Point Process Filter. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng.

Rebesco JM, Miller LE (2011) Enhanced detection threshold for in vivo cortical stimulation produced by Hebbian conditioning. Journal of Neural Engineering 8: 016011.

Rebesco JM, Miller LE (2010) Altering Function in Cortical Networks by Short-Latency, Paired Stimulation. Conf Proc, IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc.

Oby ER, Ethier C, Bauman M, Perreault EJ, Ko J, Miller LE (2010) Prediction of Muscle Activity from Cortical Signals to Restore Hand Grasp in Subjects with Spinal Cord Injury. In: O'Weiss KG (ed) Statistical Signal Processing for Neuroscience and Neurotechnology. Academic Press, Elsevier.

Ethier C, Oby ER, Bauman M, Miller LE (2010) Cortically controlled functional electrical stimulation: a neuroprosthesis for grasp function. Conf Proc, 10th Vienna International Workshop on FES and 15th IFESS Annual Conference 2010.

Slutzky MW, Jordan LR, Bauman MJ, Miller LE (2010) A new rodent behavioral paradigm for studying forelimb movement. JNS Methods 192: 228-232.

Rebesco JM, Stevenson IH, Koerding K, Solla SA, Miller LE (2010) Rewiring neural interactions by micro-stimulation. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 4: 39.

Slutzky MW, Jordan LR, Miller LE (2010) Optimal spacing of surface electrode arrays for brain machine interface applications. Journal of Neural Engineering 7: 26004.

Perreault EJ, Ethier C, Pohlmeyer EA, Oby ER, Miller LE (2009) A Brain-Machine Interface for Restoring Hand Function Following Paralysis. Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers.

Brill N, Polasek K, Oby E, Ethier C, Miller L, Tyler D (2009) Nerve cuff stimulation and the effect of fascicular organization for hand grasp in nonhuman primates. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 1: 1557-1560.

Holdefer RN, Miller LE (2009) Dynamic Correspondence between Purkinje Neuronal Discharge and Forelimb Muscle Activation in the Macaque. Brain Res 1295: 67-75.

Fagg AH, Ojakangas GW, Miller LE, Hatsopoulos NG (2009) Kinetic trajectory decoding using motor cortical ensembles. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng 17: 487-496.

Fagg AH, Hatsopoulos NG, London BM, Reimer J, Solla SA, Wang D, Miller LE (2009) Toward a Biomimetic, Bidirectional, Brain Machine Interface. in: 31th Annual International IEEE EMBS Conference, Minneapolis. embc 2009 v13

Pohlmeyer EA, Jordon LR, Kim P, and Miller LE. (2009) A fully implanted drug delivery system for peripheral nerve blocks in behaving animals. Journal of neuroscience method. 182: 165-171. JNS Methods v182p165

Miller LE, Gibson A (2009) The Red Nucleus. In: Squire L (ed) The New Encyclopedia of Neuroscience. Elsevier Ltd, Oxford. pp 55-62. Ency NS v8p55

Pohlmeyer EA, Oby ER, Perreault EJ, Solla SA, Kilgore KL, Kirsch RF, Miller LE (2009) Toward the Restoration of Hand Use to a Paralyzed Monkey: Brain-Controlled Functional Electrical Stimulation of Forearm Muscles. PLoS ONE 4: e5924. PLoSONE v4e5924

Stevenson IH, Rebesco JM, Hatsopoulos NG, Haga Z, Miller LE, Kording KP (2009) Bayesian inference of functional connectivity and network structure from spikes. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 17, 203-213. IEEE TNSRE v17p203

Stevenson IH, Rebesco JM, Miller LE, Kording KP (2008) Inferring functional connections between neurons. Curr Opin Neurobiol 18: 582-588. Curr Opin NeuroBiol v18p582

Morrow MM, Pohlmeyer EA, Miller LE (2008) Control of muscle synergies by cortical ensembles. In: Sternad D (ed) Progress in Motor Control - A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer, New York, pp 179-199. Adv Exp Med Biol v629p179

London BM, Jordan LR, Jackson CR, Miller LE (2008) Electrical stimulation of the proprioceptive cortex (area 3a) used to instruct a behaving monkey. IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering 16:32-36. IEEE TNSRE v16p32

Pohlmeyer EA, Solla SA, Perreault EJ, Miller LE (2007) Prediction of upper limb muscle activity from motor cortical discharge during reaching. Journal of Neural Engineering 4:369-379. JNE v4p369.pdf

Fagg AH, Hatsopoulos NG, de Lafuente V, Moxon KA, Nemati S, Rebesco JM, Romo R, Solla SA, Reimer J, Tkach D, Pohlmeyer EA, Miller LE (2007) Biomimetic brain machine interfaces for the control of movement. J Neurosci 27: 11842-11846. JNS v27p11842.pdf

Gdowski MJ, Miller LE, Bastianen CA, Nenonene EK, Houk JC (2007) Signaling patterns of globus pallidus internal segment neurons during forearm rotation. Brain Research 1155:56-69. Brain Res v1155p56.pdf

Pohlmeyer E.A., Perreault E.J., Slutzky M.W., Kilgore K.L., Kirsch R.F., Taylor D.M., Miller L.E. (2007) Real-time control of the hand by intracortically controlled functional neuromuscular stimulation. In: The 10th IEEE International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, The Netherlands ICORR 2007.pdf

Mussa-Ivaldi F.A., Miller L.E., Rymer W.Z., Weir R.F. (2007) Neural Engineering. In: Parasuraman R, Rizzo M (eds) Neuroergonomics: The Brain at Work. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 293-312

Westwick, D.T., Pohlmeyer, E.A., Solla, S.A., Miller, L.E., and Perreault, E.J. (2006) Identification of Multiple-Input Systems with Highly Coupled Inputs: Application to EMG Prediction from Multiple Intracortical Electrodes. Neural Comput 18, 329-355. Neural Comp v18p329.pdf

Morrow, M.M., Jordan, L.R., and Miller, L.E. (2006) A direct comparison of the task-dependent discharge of M1 in hand-space and muscle-space. J Neurophysiol. 97, 1786-1798. JNP v97p1786.pdf

Fishbach, A., Roy, S.A., Bastianen, C., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (2006) Deciding when and how to correct a movement: discrete submovements as a decision making process. Exp Brain Res. 177, 45-63. EBR v177p45.pdf

Holdefer, R.N., Houk, J.C., and Miller, L.E. (2005) Movement-related discharge in the cerebellar nuclei persists after local injections of GABA(A) antagonists. J Neurophysiol 93, 35-43. JNP v93p35.pdf

Fishbach, A., Roy, S.A., Bastianen, C., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (2005) Kinematic properties of on-line error corrections in the monkey. Exp Brain Res 164, 442-457. EBR v164p442.pdf

Miller, L.E. (2004) Limb movement: getting a handle on grasp. Curr Biol 14, R714-715. Curr Biol v14pR714.pdf

Novak, K.E., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (2003) Features of motor performance that drive adaptation in rapid hand movements. Exp Brain Res 148, 388-400. EBR v148p388.pdf

Mussa-Ivaldi, F.A., and Miller, L.E. (2003) Brain-machine interfaces: computational demands and clinical needs meet basic neuroscience. Trends Neurosci 26, 329-334. TINS v26p329.pdf

Morrow, M.M., and Miller, L.E. (2003) Prediction of muscle activity by populations of sequentially recorded primary motor cortex neurons. J Neurophysiol 89, 2279-2288. JNP v89p2279.pdf

Pohlmeyer, E.A., Miller, L.E., Mussa-Ivaldi, F.A., Perreault, E.J., and Solla, S.A. (2003) Prediction of EMG from Multiple Electrode Recordings in Primary Motor Cortex. In Annual mtg., IEEE Int. Conf. Eng. in Med. Biol. Soc.: Cancun

Miller, L.E., Holdefer, R.N., and Houk, J.C. (2002) The Role of the Cerebellum in Modulating Voluntary Limb Movement Commands. Archives Italiennes Biologie 140, 175-183

Novak, K.E., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (2002) The use of overlapping submovements in the control of rapid hand movements. Exp Brain Res 144, 351-364

Holdefer, R.N., and Miller, L.E. (2002) Primary motor cortical neurons encode functional muscle synergies. Exp Brain Res 146, 233-243

Gdowski, M.J., Miller, L.E., Parrish, T., Nenonene, E.K., and Houk, J.C. (2001) Context dependency in the globus pallidus internal segment during targeted arm movements. J Neurophysiol 85, 998-1004

Lunenburger, L.,2004 Kleiser, R., Stuphorn, V., Miller, L.E., and Hoffmann, K.P. (2001) A possible role of the superior colliculus in eye-hand coordination. Prog Brain Res 134, 109-125

Houk, J.C., and Miller, L.E. (2001) Cerebellum: Movement regulation and cognitive functions. In Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. (Macmillan)

Novak, K.E., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (2000) Kinematic properties of rapid hand movements in a knob turning task. Exp Brain Res 132, 419-433

Holdefer, R.N., Miller, L.E., Chen, L.L., and Houk, J.C. (2000) Functional connectivity between cerebellum and primary motor cortex in the awake monkey. J Neurophysiol 84, 585-590

Sarrafizadeh, R., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (1999) Red Nucleus. In Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, G. Adelman and B. Smith, eds. (Elsever Science), pp. 1794-1795

Stuphorn, V., Hoffmann, K.P., and Miller, L.E. (1999) Correlation of primate superior colliculus and reticular formation discharge with proximal limb muscle activity. Journal of Neurophysiology 81, 1978-1982

Miller, L.E., and Sinkjaer, T. (1998) Primate red nucleus discharge encodes the dynamics of limb muscle activity. J. Neurophysiol. 80, 59-70

Mason, C.R., Miller, L.E., Baker, J.F., and Houk, J.C. (1998) Organization of reaching and grasping movements in the primate cerebellar nuclei as revealed by focal muscimol inactivations. J Neurophysiol 79, 537-554

Nocher, J.D., Lee, J.S., and Miller, L.E. (1996) A magnetic field system using implanted sensors to track limb movements in the monkey. J. Neuroscience Methods 67, 203-210

Novak, K.E., Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (1996) Biological mechanisms for optimal control. In Ninth annual Yale workshop on Adaptive and Learning Systems. pp. 201-206, Yale University: Center for Systems Science, Dunham Laboratory

Sinkjaer, T., Miller, L.E., Andersen, T., and Houk, J.C. (1995) Synaptic linkages between red nucleus cells and limb muscles during a multi-joint motor task. Experimental Brain Research 102, 546-550

Miller, L.E., and Houk, J.C. (1995) Motor co-ordinates in primate red nucleus: preferential relation to muscle activation versus kinematic parameters. J. Physiol. 488, 533-548

Theeuwen, M., Gielen, C.C., Miller, L.E., and Doorenbosch, C. (1994) The relation between the direction dependence of electromyographic amplitude and motor unit recruitment thresholds during isometric contractions. Exp Brain Res 98, 488-500

Theeuwen, M., Gielen, C.C., and Miller, L.E. (1994) The relative activation of muscles during isometric contractions and low-velocity movements against a load. Exp Brain Res 101, 493-505

Theeuwen, M., Miller, L.E., and Gielen, C.C.A.M. (1993)Are the orientations of head and arm related during pointing movements? Journal of Motor Behavior 25, 242-250

Miller, L.E., van Kan, P.L.E., Sinkjaer, T., Andersen, T., Harris, G.D., and Houk, J.C. (1993) Correlation of primate red nucleus discharge with muscle activity during free-form arm movements. J. Physiol. London 469, 213-243

Miller, L.E., Theeuwen, M., and Gielen, C.C.A.M. (1992) The control of arm pointing movements in three dimensions. Exp. Brain Res. 90, 415-426

Miller, L.E., Sinkjaer, T., Andersen, T., Laporte, D.J., and Houk, J.C. (1992) Correlation analysis of relations between red nucleus discharge and limb muscle activity during reaching movements in space. In Control of arm movement in space: Neurophys. and Comp. approaches, R. Caminiti, P.B. Johnson and Y. Burnod, eds. (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag)

Miller, L.E., Gielen, C.C.A.M., Theeuwen, M., and Doorenbosch, C. (1992) The activation of mono- and biarticular muscles in multijoint movements. In Control of arm movement in space: Neurophys. and Comp. approaches, R. R. Caminiti, P.B. Johnson and Y. Burnod, eds. (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag), pp. 1-16

Wu, C., Houk, J.C.Y.K., and Miller, L.E. (1990) Nonlinear damping of limb motion. In Multiple muscle systems, J.M. Winters S.L.-Y. Woo, ed. (Springer-Verlag New York)

Houk, J.C., Dessem, D.A., Miller, L.E., and Sybirska, E.H. (1987) Correlation and spectral analysis of relations between single unit discharge and muscle activities. J. Neurosci. Meth. 21, 201-224

Gielen, C.C., Houk, J.C., Marcus, S.L., and Miller, L.E. (1984) Viscoelastic properties of the wrist motor servo in man. Ann Biomed Eng 12, 599-620